In the late ‘80s Dr. Hargreaves invented a method to assess thermal pain sensation in unrestrained rodents by stimulating the single hind paw and thus allowing for unilateral/contralateral experiments. Ugo Basile made a science-grade instrument to perform this stimulation and automatically measure response, it became a gold-standard with more than 2,000 publications in 2022.
A thermal stimulus, generated by a focused light source is applied through a glass pane to the plantar surface of the hind paw of the animal and the response to this stimulus consists of withdrawal of the stimulated paw. Ideal for hyperalgesia measurements.
One model for Mice or Rats and high throughput with enclosures for up to 12 mice or 6 rats.
The Ugo Basile is the only available system which detects paw withdrawal latency automatically (or optionally manually), thanks to a light detector embedded in the control unit. It comes complete with:
|Infrared, strong light source||Invisible to the animal, which is not distracted and high intensity stimulation for short-lasting experiments (a stimulation should not last more than 10-20 seconds, ideally only a few ones)|
|Embedded light detection||Automated paw withdrawal scoring with no experimenter bias and high accuracy|
|Optional manual score||The user can decide to manually score the paw withdrawal in those cases where the position of the paw is odd and the automatic detection is not possible|
|Touch screen control unit||Seamless configuration of the experiment parameters and easy review of data from the control unit|
|USB stick data export||No need to connect a PC and one-click data export for review in Excel|
|Modular animal enclosures||The dimension of the area available to the animal can be changed so that it is small but the animal is still unrestrained and amount of habituation can be reduced. High throughput: up to 12 mice and 6 rats|
|Command input and readout||via 4.3" touch-screen|
Universal input 100-240 VAC, 50-60Hz, 50W
|Data Portability||via USB flash drive provided|
|Calibration||via appropriate I.R. Radiometer (not included)|
|Operating Temperature||10° to 40° C, 5% to 95% RH (non-condensing)|
|I.R. Intensity||Adjustable in the interval 01-99 (in one digit steps)|
|Latency Time||0.1s steps|
|Cut off function||From 5 to 30 seconds|
|Measurement mode||Manual or Automatic|
|Start experiment||By start icon, push button or TTL input|
|Stop experiment||By start icon, push button, cut-off, or TTL input|
|Data export||.csv format, from USB key|
Input and output TTL signal
|Dimensions||135 (w) x 40 (d) x 50 (h) cm (required space on the table)|
|Shipping Weight||14Kg approx.|
|Warranty||37570 is covered by a 12-month warranty + 12 after product registration|
|UB-Care||Additional UB-Care can be added for other 12 or 24 months|
This plantar test has been used in experiments involving, hyperalgesia, pain sensitization or recovery of thermal pain response following neural injury and regeneration. The test is relatively straight forward and even beginners can master the measurement in a short period of time (Cheah et al. 2017).
Care must be taken to avoid urine and feces on the glass panel, which would alter the experiment results and habituation must be as long as needed for the animals to calm down after the initial exploration phase. Cheah et al. (2017) suggest to perform the habituation and baseline readings 1 week before the start of the experiment.
The amount of space, thanks to the modularity of the animal enclosures, should be adapted to the tendency to move of the strain in use and clear difference exists between rats and mice.
|37570 Plantar Test|
|37570-001||Plantar Test Controller|
|37370-327||4 Supporting column|
|37000-007||Modular Animal Enclosure|
|37370-005||Framed Glass Pane|
|E-WP 008||Main Cable|
|37300||Heat-Flux I.R. Radiometer|
|37370-278||Additional Stimulation Base, complete with glass pane and animal enclosure|
|37100||Set of 2 Durham Holders for Orofacial Stimulation|
|37370-365||Replacement Bulb for Plantar Test|
|37570-UBC12||UB Care 12 Additional hardware warranty extension 12 month for Plantar Test|
|37570-UBC24||UB Care 24 Additional hardware warranty extension 24 month for Plantar Test|
Hargreaves K. M.et. al., 1988, "A new and sensitive method for measuring thermal nociception in cutaneous hyperalgesia", Pain
Menghon Cheah et. al., 2017, "Assessment of Thermal Pain Sensation in Rats and Mice Using the Hargreaves Test", Bio Protoc.
Tomoya Tanaka et. al., 2020, "T*riparat*de relieves ovariectomy-induced hyperalgesia in rats, suggesting the involvement of functional regulation in primary sensory neurons by PTH-mediated signaling", Scientific Reports
Shiwu Guo et. al., 2022, "Akt/Aquaporin-4 Signaling Aggravates Neuropathic Pain by Activating Astrocytes after Spinal Nerve Ligation in Rats", Elsevier
Hideaki Nakajima et. al., 2020, "Distribution and polarization of microglia and macrophages at injured sites and the lumbar enlargement after spinal cord injury", Elsevier
Tatsuhiro Fukutoku et. al., 2020, "Sex-Related Differences in Anxiety and Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice", Journal of Neurotrauma
Haiwang Ji et. al., 2020, "A Mouse Model of Cancer Induced Bone Pain: From Pain to Movement", Front. Behav. Neurosci.