Quote list0
Your product list is empty!

Mouse, Rat

Additional Airpuff Stimuli

Product Code:48000-204

Pre-pulse inhibition of the Startle reflex (PPI) is a phenomenon in which a weak stimulus (sound or light, or air-puff) suppress the startle response to a subsequent stronger startle stimulus (of the same kind).

The interest in this technique is mainly due to the fact that impairment in PPI is normally linked to a dysfunction in the sensorimotor mechanism, which has been shown in patients with psychosis, obsessive-compulsive disorders and Huntington’s disease.

The Ugo Basile system can work with pre-pulses and pulse stimuli of several kinds (white noise, frequency noise, light, air puff). A PC software allows for flexible programming of any kind of procedure with randomizations and seamless data capture.

Customizable, complete set up, ready to go. Includes controller, Startle Link-Box, Isolation Cubicles, Stimulating/Recording Platform.

Different enclosures accommodate for different mice sizes and rat holders are available on request.

This product warranty can be extended up to 24 Additional Months.
Discover more HERE!


Startle Prepulse Inhibition (PPI) is an experimental paradigm commonly used in rodents, such as mice and rats, to study sensorimotor gating, which refers to the brain's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory stimuli and prevent them from overwhelming the processing of more important stimuli.

Sensorimotor gating refers to the ability of a sensory event to suppress or decrease a motor response, in this case, a startle response

The Startle PPI paradigm has been widely used in neuroscience research to study sensorimotor gating deficits in different animal models, including genetic mouse models and those induced by pharmacological agents. It has also been employed to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying sensorimotor gating and to evaluate the effects of potential therapeutic interventions for disorders like schizophrenia, where PPI deficits are often observed.

A typical experiment includes a startle baseline measurement as a response to a lound sound (more rarely to a light or air-puff). A pre-pulse stimulus is delivered shortly before the loud stimulus and is supposed to decrease the startle reaction in healthy animals. Normally the time between trials is randomized to ensure that the animal response is not influenced by previous stimuli.

Researchers can manipulate various experimental parameters to investigate the factors influencing PPI, such as the intensity of the prepulse, the interval between the prepulse and startle stimulus (known as the prepulse-to-pulse interval or PPI interval), and the genetic or pharmacological manipulations of the animals.

As data analysis, the pulse alone startle reflex provides an index of the animal reaction to the startle pulse in terms of maximal peak, the pre-pulse alone startle reflex provides an index of the animal reaction to the pre-pulse startle in terms of maximal peak and the %PPI indicates the inhibition of the startle reflex.

The %PPI is calculated as the decrease of the startle response after the pre-pulse is delivered, divided by the startle amplitude and is calculated for each of the pulse intensities).


Complete set up, ready to go

The Ugo Basile system is fully automated, both for the preparation of the procedure and for the analysis of data.

Main features include:

  • Automatic detection of Startle Reflex in mice
  • Complete set up, ready to start your tests. Customizable to suit your needs. A typical system combines the following elements:
    • Dedicated Software
    • Up to 4 Isolation Cubicles that includes an infrared (I.R.) light, a loudspeaker and a noiseless fan, all conveniently positioned inside the sound attenuating box
    • Stimulating/Recording (S/R) Platform (includes the light, speaker and detection system)
  • Multiple Animal Boxes to match animal dimension
  • Flexible testing, easy to set up. Simply define trial number, sound and light stimulus and timing of experimental sequences (all fully randomizable):
    • Pulse
    • Pre-pulse
    • Inter-Pulse Interval
    • Inter-Stimulus Interval



Maximum Flexibility, full event randomization

Configure your own Experimental Schedules directly on your PC

User-friendly software included

Exceptional flexibility and intuitivity in the software protocol building

Multiple stimuli

The user can decide to use pre-pulses and pulses with white noise, frequency noise, light, air puff
Multiple cage system High throughput with up to 4 cages running at the same time


Power Requirements

Universal input 100-240 VAC, 50-60Hz, 60W

Sound Level + Whitenoise

< 60 dB

Operating environment

10°C to 40°C; 5% to 95% RH (non-condensing)


Sound Range

From 65 dB to 120 dB

Pulse/pre pulse sound range (at 3KHz) From 65 dB to 120 dB
Modulated Sound Frequency Range From 100 Hz to 18 KHz

Air Puff stimulus complete system add-on

IR Light

0-100% (Environment)

Flash Light

0-100% (20K Lux) S/R Platform)

Data Export

.csv, .xlsx format

Number of cages Up to 4



25(d)x33(w)x5.5(h)cm (40500-001)

Internal Dimensions

Small Mouse: ID 84x34x39(h)mm

Large Mouse: ID 84x39x44(h)mm



Shipping Weight

Mouse Single-Cage Set-Up: 40Kg

Packing Dimensions

82x71x57cm (wooden crate) for a Mouse Single-Cage Set-up


Warranty Startle PPI is covered by a 12-month warranty + 12 after product registration
UB-Care Additional UB-Care can be added for other 12 or 24 months

Startle PPI devices for mice and rats have a wide range of applications in neuroscience and behavioral research, allowing scientists to study sensorimotor gating, its modulation by various factors, and its relevance to neuropsychiatric and neurological conditions.

Several clinical studies have shown that a number of human disorders have impaired PPI including: schizophrenia, Huntington’s disease, fragile X syndrome, and autism. Utilization of Startle PPI tests in rodents has a translational value to assess the effects of a number of treatment modalities such as putative anti-psychotics, and to explore genetic and neurobiological mechanisms underlying behaviors of relevance to psychosis.

In behavioral phenotyping PPI devices are normally part of a battery of tests for cognitive function, especially to relate sensorimotor gating to learning and memory. In Pharmacology and Drug discovery PPI is often used to test the effect of drugs on sensorymotor gating and to screen compounds in early development phase or to test the effect of toxic agents. In stress and anxiety research, PPI has shown a relationship between these conditions and sensorimotor gating.

48163 Startle/PPI System for Mice, single cage system

48006 Stimulating/Recording Platform for Mouse


Startle PPI Large cilindrical mouse restrainer (up to 75g)


Startle PPI Medium cilindrical mouse restrainer (up to 50g)


Startle PPI Small cilindrical mouse restrainer (up to 25g)


Isolation Cubicle for behavioral cages, inside dimensions 48,5(w)x38,5(d)x48,5(h) cm,
sound proof ONLY with sound proof ventilation


USB stick, including instruction manual

48253 STARTLE/PPI SYSTEM FOR MICE, two-cage system

48006 Stimulating/Recording Platform for Mouse


Small Mouse Box


Large Mouse Box


Startle BOX for Startle/PPI system


Isolation Cubicle for Behavioral Cages, inside dimensions 48,5(w)x38,5(d)x48,5(h) cm,
sound proof ONLY with sound proof ventilation


USB stick, including instruction manual

48453 STARTLE/PPI SYSTEM FOR MICE, four-cage system


Stimulating/Recording Platform for Mouse


Small Mouse Box


Large Mouse Box


Startle BOX for Startle/PPI system


Isolation Cubicle for Behavioral Cages, inside dimensions 48,5(w) x 38,5(d) x 48,5(h) cm,
sound proof ONLY with sound proof ventilation


USB stick including instruction manual

48000-204 AirPuff Stimuli

G. Corli, M. Tirri, S. Bilel, R. Arfè, T. Coccini, E. Roda, B. Marchetti, F. Vincenzi, G. Zauli, P. A. Borea, C. A. Locatelli, K. Varani, M. Marti, 2023, “MAM‑2201 acute administration impairs motor, sensorimotor, prepulse inhibition, and memory functions in mice: a comparison with its analogue AM‑2201”, Psychopharmacology

David L. Braff, Mark A. Geyer, Neal R. Swerdlow, 2001, “Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies”, Psychopharmacology

M. Marti, G. Talani, C. Miliano, S. Bilel, F. Biggio, J. Bratzu, M. Diana, M. A. De Luca, L. Fattore, 2021 “New insights into methoxetamine mechanisms of action: Focus on serotonergic 5-HT2 receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects in the rat”, Experimental Neurology

S. Bilel, M. Tirri, R. Arfè, S. Stopponi, L. Soverchia, R. Ciccocioppo, P. Frisoni, S. Strano-Rossi, C. Miliano, F. De-Giorgio2, G. Serpelloni, 2019, “Pharmacological and Behavioral Effects of the Synthetic Cannabinoid AKB48 in Rats”, Frontiers in Neuroscience

M. Tirri, S. Bilel, R. Arfè, G. Corli, B. Marchetti, T. Bernardi, F. Boccuto, G. Serpelloni, F. Botrè, F. De-Giorgio, K. Golembiowska, M. Marti, 2022, “Effect of -NBOMe Compounds on Sensorimotor, Motor, and Prepulse Inhibition Responses in Mice in Comparison With the 2C Analogs and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: From Preclinical Evidence to Forensic Implication in Driving Under the Influence of Drugs”, Frontiers in Psychiatry

M. Tirri, L. Ponzoni, S. Bilel, Raffaella Arfè, D. Braida, M. Sala, M. Marti, 2020, “Acute DOB and PMA Administration Impairs Motor and Sensorimotor Responses in Mice and Causes Hallucinogenic E cts in Adult Zebrafish”, Brain SciencesM. Koch: “The Neurobiology of Startle” Prog Neuro­biol. 59(2):107-28, 1999

D. Braff et alia: “Human Studies of Prepulse Inhibition of Startle: Normal Subjects, Patient Groups, and Phar­macological Studies” Psychopharmacology 156(2): 234-258., 2001

H.S. Hoffman et al.: “Startle Reaction: Modification By Background Acoustic Stimulation” Science 141: 928-30, 1963

R.R. Marsh et alia: “The Role of Small Changes in the Acoustic Environment in Modifying the Startle Reflex” J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process, 1(3): 1975

Back to: Behaviour, Conditioning, Reward